Physics in Context - 2nd Edition

Chapter 8: Waves and Vibration

Some links are repeated for use with more than one lesson.

8.1  Properties of Waves

Sound Waves Tutorial
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/sound
This link heads up the Physics Classroom chapter on sound waves and music, and includes questions for a self-check of your understanding. Several notable lessons from these will be individually called out in the links below.

Transverse and Longitudinal Waves
The following sites provide animations of transverse and longitudinal waves.

Longitudinal and Transverse Wave Motion
http://www.acs.psu.edu/drussell/demos/waves/wavemotion.html
This site includes some excellent animations that show the movement of the wave medium during different types of wave motion: longitudinal and transverse motions, and some additional advanced motions.

Comparing Longitudinal and Transverse Waves
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/sound/tralon.html
This web page compares the two types of waves, and illustrates how sound waves produce increased pressures in a demonstration of standing waves.

Transverse Wave and Longitudinal Wave
http://ww2.unime.it/dipart/i_fismed/wbt/mirror/ntnujava/waveType/waveType.html
This Java applet lets you visualize the difference between a transverse wave and a longitudinal wave.

Transverse and Longitudinal Waves
http://einstein.byu.edu/~masong/HTMstuff/WaveTrans.html
Another applet to aid in visualizing transverse and longitudinal waves

Wave Phenomena
http://groups.physics.northwestern.edu/vpl/waves/wavetypes.html
This interactive applet demonstrates various transverse, longitudinal, and mixed waves, allowing you to change a few parameters. (Requires Java.)

http://www.physicslessons.com/microlabsb.htm
Mini physics labs/demos are found here. See #23 for instructions for using a Slinky for demonstrating transverse and longitudinal waves.

Simple Harmonic Motion
http://www.animations.physics.unsw.edu.au/jw/SHM.htm
This site provides links to a number of animations and videos that demonstrate simple harmonic motion. Chladni patterns, resulting from resonance at audio frequencies, are seen forming in short videos.

This site presents some of the many patterns that form when a plate is vibrated at various audio frequencies, and includes a video that illustrates the pattern dependence on the audio frequency.

Harmonic Motion
http://webphysics.davidson.edu/physletprob/ch4_tour/4.1.tour_4.html
This Physlet depicts simple harmonic motion of an object on a vibrating spring and on a rotating turntable and shows how a graph of the object's position versus time produces a "wave."

Christian Doppler
https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Christian_Doppler
This encyclopedic entry gives biographical information about the man credited with extending the speed-frequency relation observed by sound waves to the optical realm in support of the wave theory of light.

Acoustical Properties of Common Instruments
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/sound/Lesson-5/Resonance
A portion of the “Sound and Music” chapter of the Physics Classroom, these lessons discuss the acoustical properties that empower various musical instruments, and includes questions for a self-check of your understanding.

The Doppler Effect
The following sites give various presentations about the Doppler effect.

The Doppler Effect
http://fearofphysics.com/Sound/doppler.html
This sequence of pages presents interactive animations of the Doppler Effect for sound waves.

The Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms
http://www.acs.psu.edu/drussell/Demos/doppler/doppler.html
This page presents and illustrates with animations the result of sound source moving at faster and faster speeds.

The Doppler Effect
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/sound/Lesson-3/The-Doppler-Effect-and-Shock-Waves
A portion of the “Sound and Music” chapter of the Physics Classroom, this lesson discusses the Doppler effect and how a "sonic boom" occurs.

The Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms
This sequence of pages (right arrow advances to the next page) presents discussion and interactive animations of the Doppler effect at various speeds.

Sound and Hearing
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase /sound/soucon.html
Covers all components of sound and hearing, including decibels, pitch, loudness, Doppler effect, acoustics, etc.

8.2  Wave Interactions

Sound Waves Interference
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/sound/Lesson-3/Interference-and-Beats
A portion of the “Sound and Music” chapter of the Physics Classroom, these lessons are particularly applicable to a study of wave interactions, and includes questions for a self-check of your understanding.

Natural Frequency and Standing Waves
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/sound/Lesson-4/Natural-Frequency
This series of pages at the Physics Classroom introduces the concept of a natural frequency and how it leads to standing waves in musical instruments and such. It includes some excellent video demonstrations worth watching, and practice questions to check your understanding.

Tsunamis
http://www.geophys.washington.edu/tsunami/general/physics/characteristics.html
This page describes how tsunamis differ from other water waves and includes a QuickTime video showing how a tsunami can travel across the Pacific Ocean. Links at the bottom of the page will take you to additional information on tsunamis and their formation.

The Tacoma Narrows Bridge Disaster
The following sites provide interesting information on the Tacoma Narrows bridge disaster.

Tacoma Narrows Bridge Disaster
http://www.enm.bris.ac.uk/research/nonlinear/tacoma/tacoma.html
A summary with photos and links related to the Tacoma Narrows bridge disaster. It includes a link to a short MPEG that shows the bridge action.

Suspension Bridge
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/bridge/meetsusp.html#clips
This NOVA site describes suspension bridge construction and includes two color video clips of the Tacoma Narrows bridge as it twists and finally collapses.

Superposition of Waves
Another set of applets depicting superposition:

Ripple Tank
http://webphysics.davidson.edu/Applets/Ripple/Ripple_JS.html
This Java applet depicts a ripple tank and the resulting interference pattern from the superposition of two or more waves. You can change the wavelength and even add sources to really complicate the picture.

Interference of Sinusoidal Waveforms
http://www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/ntnujava/index.php?topic=19
This interactive applet demonstrates superposition of two sine waves. You can change the frequency, phase, and amplitude of the two interfering waves. (Requires Java.)

Interference of Sound Waves
This PhET applet simulates the sound waves coming from one or two speakers, and provides tools for measuring and listening to the resulting interfering waves. (Requires Java.)

Wave Interference
This PhET applet simulates the waves formed by one or two sources of dripping faucets, speakers, or by a light source.

Constructive Superposition
http://www2.biglobe.ne.jp/~norimari/science/JavaEd/e-wave2.html
Java applet that demonstrates constructive interference of two waves.

Destructive Superposition
http://www2.biglobe.ne.jp/~norimari/science/JavaEd/e-wave3.html
Java applet that demonstrates destructive interference of two waves.

Stationary Wave
http://www2.biglobe.ne.jp/~norimari/science/JavaEd/e-wave4.html
Java applet that demonstrates a standing wave formed by the interference of two waves.

Understanding Standing Waves
http://zonalandeducation.com/mstm/physics/waves/standingWaves/understandingSWDia1/UnderstandingSWDia1.html
This page includes an interactive applet to illustrate transverse standing waves of various harmonics.

Traveling Waves vs Standing Waves
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/waves/Lesson-4/Traveling-Waves-vs-Standing-Waves
This series of pages from the Physics Classroom shows how traveling waves are reflected to become standing waves. The lesson concludes with an excellent video demonstrating longitudinal standing waves, and questions to check your understanding.